Array Formula (Excel)

An array formula is one that can perform multiple calculations on one or more of the items in an array. It can return either multiple results or a single result. e.g. you can place an array formula in a range of cells and calculate a column or row of subtotals. You can also place a formula in a single cell and calculate a single amount.
An Array formula is entered by pressing CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER. When you do this, Excel surrounds your array formula with braces — and you cannot type the braces manually.
Array formulas are very versatile and have vast applications. A live example of an Array formula application is here. Visit for more information on using Array formulas.


Correlated Query (SQL)

A query in which the subquery depends on the outer query for its values is called a correlated query. This means that the subquery is executed repeatedly, once for each row that might be selected by the outer query. For example, check this post out.


Custom Format (Excel)

Excel provides you with various format options to control how you want to display your data. e.g. Number, Text, Percentage, Time, Date etc. While there are multiple built-in formats, sometimes they are not enough. If needed, a user can create his own format using standard codes. This is called a custom format. It has extensive applications.

A number format can have up to four sections of code, separated by semicolons. These code sections define the format for positive numbers, negative numbers, zero values, and text, in that order.


Look here for an example of custom format


Self Join (SQL)

A self join is a join in which a table is joined with itself (which is also called Unary relationships). To join a table itself means that each row of the table is combined with itself and with every other row of the table (Source).

A table can be joined to itself in a self-join. Use a self-join when you want to create a result set that joins records in a table with other records in the same table. To list a table two times in the same query, you must provide a table alias for at least one of instance of the table name. This table alias helps the query processor determine whether columns should present data from the right or left version of the table. Visit this post or this site for examples.


Volatile Functions (Excel)

Volatile Functions are those whose value cannot be assumed to be the same from one moment to the next even if none of its arguments (if it takes any) has changed. Excel reevaluates cells that contain volatile functions, together with all dependents, every time that it recalculates. For this reason, too much reliance on volatile functions can make recalculation times slow. Use them sparingly. Some of the volatile Excel functions are NOW, TODAY, RAND, OFFSET, INDIRECT, INFO (depending on its arguments), CELL (depending on its arguments)

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